## Our future with Quantum Computing and Beyond

Quantum computing has become one of the most exciting fields in recent times. It is a kind of technology that can and possibly will soon revolutionize our future in various ways, some previously unimaginable. Many different types of computations, impossible to do with classical computers, can finally take advantage of the immense charge packed within quantum-powered machines.

Nonetheless, many problems in different fields ranging from medicine to oceanography, e-commerce to astronomy might pop up, only solvable with the help of **quantum computers**.

## Our Future: Why choose quantum computing over classical computers?

The answer lies in the fundamental differences between the two working mechanisms. Classical computers calculate bits (* either* 0 or 1), while the

**quantum bits**used in quantum computing

*can be both in the state of 0 or 1 at a time*. This property infers a quantum computer to work substantially faster than a classical one. Unlike traditional binary computing, quantum bits can do

*parallel calculations*.

However, even though a quantum computer works faster, a classical computer can sometimes** work better in specific problems** and vice versa. It mainly depends on the situation we want to solve whether a quantum or a classical computer will do the best. Also, the best part of quantum technology is that other than using it as a substitute for the classical one, there will be a standard set of problems that can be solved efficiently or *only with the help of a quantum computer*.

The quantum computers that we see now manufactured by IBM and other companies are far from perfect. Different companies, including IBM, Google, Xanadu, and others, work on *noise-free quantum computers projects*.

## How Quantum Computers Come To Shape A Variety Of Fields

Though present quantum computers are not perfect and infested with noise, quantum computers are now hybridizing with classical counterparts for some fantastic works. Quantum computers manufactured with **superconducting qubits** cover different fields of quantum machine learning. Several protocols and machine learning algorithms apply to noisy quantum computers with a small amount of input, and it works fine to some great extent. Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) is an example of how data structures can yield valuable data from a large set. Had the present systems not been noisy, this algorithm could have been used in larger data sets to extract data. We would have gotten our results providing the input and constraints and getting substantially faster output than a classical computer due to the parallel calculation of entangled qubits.

Scientists are now spending incredible efforts to mitigate the error in the quantum computing system. Not only that, a massive number of tech giants are investing in this field. So naturally, the question comes: how will quantum computing influence our future?

## Our Future *is* Quantum!

The potential of quantum computing still hides behind unexplored areas of this technology. We are yet to comprehend the aura of it. Standing in the second revolution of the quantum development era, we can now suspect some of the benefits we might enjoy with the advent of noise-free tech.

A quantum computer can speed up several kinds of machine learning problems related to chemistry simulations. Moreover, in the coming days, many issues might arise, ussies whole only solution might be through quantum computing.

## Quantum Optimization

A Quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA) is excellent in solving many optimization problems. For example, we have often seen that when we have different locations in a map and different routes to approach a particular area, we often pose the question: which is the most efficient way to reach point A? If the number of points is small, the combinations are manageable. We might solve this problem with brute force algorithms in classical computers. However, when the number of inputs increases, the efficiency of the computation decreases.

This is where quantum computers can play a vital role in finding the correct and most optimized answer in a reasonable amount of time and resource with the QAOA algorithm and max cut solution, which mainly works to convert the whole problem into a *Hamiltonian*.

Besides the quantum weirdness, these algorithms will give you optimized results faster than the classical counterpart.

This optimization algorithm is applicable in other fields, for example, finances. The investors will be able to calculate more efficiently. Maxcut approach and QAOA will work on certain constraints on the large dataset and extract valuable data points in no time, making our lives easier.

## Quantum Computer in Chemistry simulation, drugs, and medicine formulation

The use of quantum computers to simulate different types of molecules in chemical and biochemical environments is not to mention. Since the stability of a molecule produced in a reaction mostly depends on which type of bonds they created and practically those bonds are efficient to develop naturally, it generally informs chemists whether that molecule is stable or not.

Classical computers use brute force algorithms to take substantial time and energy to calculate which elements or compounds as reactants will produce stable products. These kinds of problems usually come with many constraints that result in slow computation. However, quantum computers can cut in and help build quality products in a reasonable amount of time.

These kinds of simulations will help scientists to produce different types of medicinal products more efficiently. Also, since we are in an era where there is a deficiency of antibiotics (antibiotic-resistant problem), it might help scientists synthesize artificial antibiotics. Previously incurable diseases are now getting another chance. In one way or another, quantum computing in medicine will change many people’s lives.

## Quantum Encryption Protocol

One of the basic features of quantum computing is that **quantum computers are efficient in factoring**. No matter how big or small numbers are multiplied, it can easily factor out using the amplitude amplification method in Shor’s Algorithm.

While our present computer security relies on number factoring into large prime numbers (RSA system), the next generation of quantum computers will take it even further. *The BB84 Encryption protocol* in quantum computing might be incrementally better than what we use at present. Its efficiency is in creating encrypted keys between the sender and receiver using and exchanging entangled qubits. Most of the time, it can alert the receiver about the interruption of eve. Leveraging the quantum weirdness, this encryption model might be our new model for securing critical information. The working principle of this algorithm is pretty simple.

## Quantum Information Transfer and Quantum Internet

With the advent of quantum computers, it will be possible to send messages using the quantum teleportation protocol. Single qubits of information at a time will be transported. Who knows, using an ecosystem of quantum computers, a significant amount of knowledge might travel with more developed systems. This fact might help in the more accessible and safer transferring of information.

Using **super-dense coding**, a tremendous amount of information can move from one physical place to another. We might get quantum internet by combining super-dense coding and quantum transportation protocols in the next revolution. However, it is still an idea, and scientists are working on it. If we can make quantum internet happen, quantum computers in the same network will be used for faster calculation, importing, and exporting files. And this is most likely only the tip of the iceberg.

## Quantum RAM

At present, quantum computers take classical inputs and convert those classical bits into Hamiltonian. Then the computation is done on the information based on constraints and again convert those qubits into classical output upon measurement. In this process, a lot of energy goes into the conversion process. However, if QRAM, that is, Quantum Random Access Memory, can be created, quantum computers will not have to work so much on conversion rather will be able to work on larger data sets and give more reliable results.

## Quantum Neuroscience

We have seen quantum computers play a crucial role in our practical life once it becomes in its perfect form or close to one. Different types of research in other fields are also dependent on the development of quantum computers to prove or disprove the hypotheses. One of the mentionable among them is in the field of neuroscience.

According to the *Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics*, after applying measurement gates on a quantum system, the superposition of the states of the system collapses on one of the states randomly. However, according to another interpretation of quantum mechanics (Everett’s many-worlds interpretation), it is implied that, upon the measurement of the system, nothing collapses. Instead, the reality splits into different outcomes. And our consciousness is nothing but one of the infinite realities out there. This view gives an exciting concept of the quantum mind.

Some scientists also hypothesize that our mind can work like a biological quantum computer. It might be possible to gather information from one reality to another using that synthesized physical quantum computer. This kind of research using quantum computers might also help us uncover the mystery about our consciousness, and evidently, this hypothesis can only be proved or disproved with the help of a noise-free quantum computer.

## Use of Quantum Computer in Astronomy and Astrophysics

The *black hole information paradox* is a famous problem in astrophysics: the information contained within a black hole should never be lost. However, reality draws a different conclusion. This paradox has been perplexing many physicists for years. Some scientists already speculate that quantum computers might come in handy and end this paradox for good.

Black holes emit *Hawking radiation*, resulting in the fundamental paradox: the destruction of quantum information. But many physicists hope to drop an entangled qubit in the event horizon of a black hole and measure the other entangled pair to extract the information that that particular black hole contains.

Coming back to the paradox, we ask ourselves: is technological incapability the reason we fail to obtain information from the hawking radiation? In reality, quantum information is not destroyed but conserved. However, considering today’s development, it is far beyond implementation.

## Quantum Computer and Particle Physics

The field of particle physics can heavily impact itself by using quantum computers. Recently CERN, in collaboration with IBM, gave a test run by analyzing their dataset with a five-qubit quantum computer. The results are pretty impressive, and it gives us hope that in the future, quantum computers might influence particle physics by manipulating data faster and more efficiently using quantum machine learning algorithms. An essential vision of using quantum computers in particle physics is to extend the standard model of particle physics and develop a noise-free quantum system; scientists are hopeful.

Using quantum computers in particle physics will help scientists analyze the data from the detectors faster and more efficiently.

## Quantum computing and Mathematics

Quantum computers can play a potential role in solving many mathematical theories and hypotheses. Since the advent of quantum computers, mathematicians are hopeful to use noise-free quantum computers for solving different types of mathematical conjectures like Goldbach’s conjecture or Reimann’s Zeta function. Who knows, in the coming days, researchers might find the sequence of prime numbers using the quantum computer, specifically using quantum machine learning to see and acknowledge the intricate pattern of prime numbers by amplitude amplification.

## Quantum Computing and Sound Engineering

It might seem weird to think that quantum computing might one day revolutionize the field of music and sound engineering. This problem can almost be solved using the same scheme as of approaching the other optimization problems. Quantum Fourier Transform can help in this situation. The optimized frequencies can be mixed using the inverse Quantum Fourier transform. High-quality music can be produced by analyzing and finding which frequencies are soothing to the human ear and mind.

*Is it too soon to have a new genre in music: Quantum rock?*

Different types of research work are going on in this field. The better our understanding of **quantum computing**, the wider its influence on our lives.

Two hundred years ago, classical computers were not an essential part of our life, and nobody could imagine in that time that a machine built by human beings could have so much effect on an individual’s life. But it seems without the use of computers; our present lives would become jeopardized.

Similarly, it might feel like quantum computers are sci-fi fanatics at present. But like classical machines, 100 years later, quantum computers will indeed become a daily matter. The present condition of quantum computers does not advocate usage in so much actual life usage, but future quantum computers might surely achieve that title. Then we will wonder one afternoon that 200 years ago, who imagined the widespread use of quantum computers in real life.

One unique and beautiful thing about science is that what we consider impossible becomes possible the next day. In the coming days, we might use quantum computers to go beyond the *Planck realm*, manipulate space-time more sophisticatedly. Is it so impossible to think that future quantum computers might replace today’s classical machines?

Theoretically, **quantum computers might replace a classical computer** because a quantum system works classically on a macroscopic scale. But practically, today’s quantum computers have a long way to go before we can use them in our daily lives.

Also, we do not know yet if quantum computers will ever replace classical computers. Scientists from all around the world are keenly working on this system. Who knows after one or two centuries where we will stand in the line of civilization. It is just a matter of time and effort of our understanding before quantum computers may amaze us with their more implications in the newer fields we do not know or cannot imagine yet.