Top 13 Programming Languages in 2021

For non-tech savvy people, programming languages are the languages used by software engineers to code and create applications, websites or mobile applications.

While most small business owners and employers do not need to understand everything that goes into design and development of applications, it can be helpful to know the basics, especially when it comes to hiring a web- or mobile app developer.
Programming languages sit at the back of every application or website, so they are not something you can see. Take Shareable for Hire‘s website, for example.

Sharable for Hire Website Technology Sample

As you can see above, it’s virtually impossible to know what type of programming language this website uses.

Here are the top programming languages web developers use in 2021



Almost every list aimed to compare programming languages starts with JavaScript. Rightfully so – it is nearly impossible to find a web developer that does not know JavaScript since it’s the most common programming language. JavaScript is necessary for website creation, especially when paired with HTML and CCS.
Most websites rely on JavaScript to create interactive elements. Because of its versatility, it’s one of the friendliest languages for beginners, especially influencers trying to produce an outstanding web design for their brand.
JavaScript disadvantages are well known and cataloged by the vast community behind this language. Code visibility makes it vulnerable to hacking, and different browsers may interpret the code differently. Also, JavaScript debugging efficiency is far from that of other languages, for example, C++.



Python is intuitive and straightforward, which is why it’s so popular among developers. Like Java, there are several framework, making it one of the most versatile languages. Python is a dynamic programming language that is easy to code and focuses on code readability. Because of its simplicity, it enjoys a broad audience, even among young and inspiring developers.
Python also brings a ton of valuable assets for building machine learning-based applications, and its healthy bundle of helpful libraries looks good in the eyes of insightful code masters.
Although the overwhelmingly positive impact of Python, especially as a future-ready programming language, has a few cons. One of them is its apparent incompatibility for building mobile applications. This problem bears its origins since the inception of one of the earlier versions of the language. Python 3 came out in 2006 but did not gain sufficient momentum to become mobile-capable, partially due to the inevitable elimination of its previous version, Python 2.7.
Today, this language still carries the scars of this earlier transition setback. However, despite the rough past, it seems it has a bright future: it surpassed JavaScript in popularity. What is even more intriguing — some experts even claim it also caught up with Java.



Ruby is a relatively uncomplicated programming language, initially developed in the 90s and its creators intended it to be more human-friendly. This notion is also extended to its multi-platform support: you can use it on Windows, Linux, iOS, or Android. With an object-oriented architecture, it provides both procedural and functional programming.
Ruby is used mainly for web applications but has various other uses like processing data and prototyping.
One notorious accusation to Ruby’s capabilities coming directly from the devs that use it is that it runs slow, and the frequency of its updates is morbidly similar in speed.



Rust is one of the newer programming languages, but it’s worth learning for most developers. This language was developed by Mozilla Corporation and is meant for low-level system programming. A few of the benefits of Rust are the use of secure code, which avoids programmers accessing memory sections of code and can lead to unpredictable behavior.
Rust is already being used by major tech companies, like Dropbox. It’s a much more complex language to learn, but it is a sought-out addition to the skills set of versatile web developers.
Some Rust developers complain that sometimes it takes a lot of code to explain simple things and that problems already solved in other languages must be re-written to work.



Both labeled as general-purpose languages, C and C++ occupy a large portion of web development and the tech industry. Companies around the world hire C/C++ developers, including Adobe, Oracle, Microsoft, and more. Knowing C or C++ makes it easier to learn other programming languages.
C language is a procedural programming language that developers use to create things like operating systems. Other programming languages inherit properties from C.
On the other hand, C++ is more object-oriented and heavily used for game development and desktop applications.
Typical disadvantages of C++ include the lack of support for garbage collectors, which sets memory management completely in the hands of the software engineer developing the application.



JAVA ranks well on the list of programming languages that are still in demand. The language itself is object-oriented and allows code execution on other supported platforms. Developers typically use JAVA for android development and web applications. Companies like Adobe and Amazon have built great products thanks to this language.
One of the commonly shared drawbacks of JAVA includes its high toll on memory usage and the subsequent lack of control for garbage collection.



C# offers enormous career opportunities. Developed by Microsoft, the purpose of this language was as a supporting tool for the .Net framework, and it is ideal for game development, Windows application development, and more. Some notable features of C# are structured language, fast compilation, and scalability.
There are almost no notable downsides to using the C# language, except that its prolific resources require a lot of learning. Only after carefully examining its complex set of libraries can a stubborn developer master its true potential.



PHP is currently doing very well in the tech industry and is a preferred choice by many developers. Some of the well-known companies that use PHP throughout their online tools are companies like Facebook - but also many other tech giants.
This language is open-source and server-side, a perfect combination for website development. PHP was originally developed as a web programming language, and as thus is fabulous when it comes to HTML, CSS and JavaScript support. PHP is also easy to learn, which is why most veteran developers recommend it for newcomers.
The open-source approach of PHP accounts for many benefits, but it does also bring a few negative factors. One of the drawbacks include many security vulnerabilities.



Go is a programming language that has increased considerably in demand and popularity these past years. Companies like Uber and Google use this language, which is typed and developed by Google. It has syntax similar to C and provides developers with various benefits, such as garbage collection, type safety, and high performance.
Go can execute thousands of requests per second, more than its closest opponent – Python, and much more than other programming languages.
Some of its drawbacks come from the fact that it is still young, and much development is yet to come. Presently, only creative developers can manage to use it efficiently since there are few supporting libraries.



Netflix, LinkedIn, and Twitter all use Scala for their platforms. Beginner developers should have little problem learning Scala. Not to mention, many large companies plan to incorporate Scala in the upcoming years.
This programming language was growing in demand and was designed to resolve developers’ issues with Java. Scala supports object-oriented and functional programming, making it a general-purpose language. Some features to note are lazy computation, type inference, and scalability. Scala code can be executed on Java Virtual Machine, making it ideal for web development, data science, and machine learning.
Although Scala is enabling, combining functional and object-oriented programming, some work by overly creative developers might be hard to comprehend, especially in a team setting. Since neither approaches are the ideal solution for all problems, making a hybrid version in the face of Scala is a daring project, but not without its dose of ambiguity and potential setbacks.



Elm is a young language compared to the others on this list. It began as a Harvard student’s thesis and grew into an ideal tool for front-end developers. Developers find it remarkable at compiling JavaScript for fast-executing UIs with minimal to no errors.
The future of Elm looks promising, but since no big company or a teeming community is standing behind it (yet), its lack of support is painfully apparent to developers.



Many people do not consider SQL a programming language because you can’t use it as a general-purpose language like JavaScript. However, many regard SQL as an essential web development tool with the primary purpose of interfacing with a website’s database.
Developed by IBM close to fifty years ago, SQL has been refined over the decades with only a few surviving drawbacks. One of them is its bewildering interface, breaking a list of usability standards and sometimes making it difficult for programmers to manage databases.



HTML and CSS aren’t technically programming languages, but HTML5 and CSS3 are good places to start if you want to become a front-end developer. Paired together, developers use these languages to make up the building blocks of web development. HTML structures a page’s content, while CSS allows developers to modify the structure.
Every web developer should have a strong understanding and experience with HTML and CSS. HTML is typically easier to learn than CSS, but neither of them is considered difficult to understand.
The disadvantages of HTML and CSS are usually inconsequential and solved through programming languages, but still worth mentioning. As a markup language, HTML has static code, which means mistakes can quickly escalate into more profound problems, and many changes necessitate manual intervention.

Final Thoughts

When developing a website or finding a developer to handle your website creation, it’s essential to know about the different programming languages available to you. If you don’t know anything about website coding, you may want to work with a platform like WordPress or hire professional software engineers to help you build your website or mobile app.


Kris Terziev

Kris is the Head of Research and Development at CodeCoda and, as he himself says, is constantly seeking better methods of developing and implementing software solutions.
In his previous experience as a software engineer, he has experienced everything from plain assembly code through the optimization of the process of business and functional analysis and the development of Fintech Applications.
During his school years, he won several medals in international competitions in mathematics and computer science. Concerning his professional interests, he pays special attention to algorithms and software development methodologies.